OffShell: 1811R.001.v1

[Review paper]

Embarking on theoretical studies for off-shell science guided by dressed photons

 Motoichi Ohtsu
(Submitted on 15 November 2018, Uploaded on 15 November 2018)

keywords: dressed photon, off-shell, response function,Clebsch representation

Abstract

By noting that the dressed photon (DP) is a quantum field whose energy–momentum relation deviates from the mass-shell, novel theoretical studies of so-called off-shell science have been launched. This article reviews recent progress in these studies. After reviewing the characteristics of the DP as an off-shell quantum field, theories having a physical basis are introduced. These theories are an electromagnetic response theory and a theory based on spatio-temporal vortex hydrodynamics. Next, theories having a mathematical basis are introduced, and these can serve as helpful tools for gaining a deep understanding of the concepts of the physics-based theories above. These theories are a quantum probability theory and a quantum walk model. As a further helpful tool, a quantum measurement theory is introduced. A theory based on micro–macro duality is demonstrated, which serves as the foundation to embark on a stuy of off-shell science. Correlations among the theories reviewed here are also shown.

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The copyright holder for this preprint is the author. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.