Route to Off-Shell Science
(Submitted on 24 June 2020, Uploaded on 25 June 2020)
keywords: dressed photon, spatio-temporal vortex hydrodynamics, quantum probability, quantum walk, quantum measurement
This article reviews the experimental and theoretical studies under development and shows the route that should be taken to establish off-shell science in the future. Section 1 reviews the past and present of the science and technology of the DP. It presents the reasons why the off-shell scientific theory is required. As the bases of these reasons, fifteen experimentally observed unique phenomena that originate from the DP are presented (their details will be reviewed in Sections 2–6). Section 2 reviews the nature of the DP by presenting experimental results. Theoretical results describing them are also presented. However, it should be pointed out that these theories are no more than urgent theoretical solutions based on on-shell scientific methods. Sections 3–5 review a variety of disruptive innovations realized by using DPs: nano-optical devices (Section 3), nano-fabrication technology (Section 4), and optical energy conversion technology (Section 5). Section 6 reviews light-emitting diodes, lasers, and polarization rotators whose operating principles are based on the nature of the DP. Finally, Section 7 reviews the theoretical approaches to off-shell science. They are theories based on spatio-temporal vortex hydrodynamics, quantum probability, quantum walk, quantum measurement, and micro-macro duality. Appendix A reviews the results of numerical simulations for the experimental results in Sections 5 and 6. They rely on statistical mechanics and complex-systems science to derive urgent solutions. The problems with these on-shell science-based simulations are presented. Appendix B provides a supplementary explanation of the theory based on spatio-temporal vortex hydrodynamics reviewed in Section 7.
The copyright holder for this preprint is the author. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.