OffShell: 2103R.001.v1

[Review paper]

The dressed photon as a member of the off-shell photon family

Motoichi Ohtsu
(Submitted on 2 March. 2021, Uploaded on 2 March 2021)

keywords: spacelike, longitudinal, off-shell photon, Clebsch-dual, Majorana field


This article reviews recent progress in theoretical studies in off-shell science that has been recently established for correctly describing light–matter interactions. These studies produced the Clebsch-dual (CD) field theory to deal with the spacelike momentum field that is indispensable in such interactions. This theory describes that the spacelike momentum field is converted to a timelike field at a singular point in a host material, resulting in the creation of a timelike Majorana field of a particle–antiparticle pair. Annihilation of this pair creates a dressed photon (DP). Furthermore, based on the correlation between theoretical models of the CD field and dark energy, the maximum size of the DP is derived and is expressed by using basic physical constants. The derived value (40 nm) agrees with the experimental value. Finally, by noting the mechanism of creation of the DP, it is concluded that the DP should be described on the basis of the off-shell photon model, not the virtual photon model.

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