Offshell: 2110R.002.v1

[Review paper]

Progresses in theoretical studies of off-shell science for dressed photons

Motoichi Ohtsu
(Submitted on 22 October 2021, Uploaded on 22 October 2021)

keywords:  Majorana fermion, dressed photon, category algebra, measurement theory, quantum walk,

Abstract

This article reviews recent theoretical studies of off-shell science that have been launched recently based on quantum field theory, category algebra theory, quantum measurement theory, and quantum walk theory. Studies on the Majorana field have revealed a new dynamic channel that explains the enigmatic phenomena of the dressed photon (DP), and concludes that the DP is generated by pair annihilation of unstable timelike Majorana particles. Furthermore, the DP constant is defined as the third component of natural units. To describe the interacting quantum fields (including the DP) by category algebra, general relationships among spacelike events are studied to deal with ordered sets (causality structures) and groups (symmetry structures) as relativity in a generalized sense. Relativity and the quantum nature are integrated as a category theoretical structure and as a noncommutative probabilistic structure, respectively. Measurement theory is reviewed for describing the interacting quantum field by using algebraic quantum field theory based on a local net. Finally, quantum walk models are reviewed for numerically analyzing the unique nature of DP energy transfer. After defining the Grover walk and the boundary operators, the centered generalized eigenspace is characterized by using the concept of flow from graph theory. Studies on counter-intuitive phenomena for the Grover walk on a general connected graph by using spectral analysis are also reviewed.


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The copyright holder for this preprint is the author. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

Research Origin for Dressed Photon,3-13-19 Moriya-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-0022 Japan